PAH associated with connective tissue disease (PAH-CTD)

PAH: A potential complication of CTD affecting up to approximately 1 in 10 patients1

PAH is a well-known complication in some patients with CTD2

  • PAH affects approximately 3% to 13% of patients with CTD and 5% to 12% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)1,3
  • The long-term prognosis of PAH-CTD may be worse than other forms of PAH4

The aggressive nature of PAH in patients with CTD suggests the importance of early intervention5

Reduction in the risk of disease progression: Results from the PAH-CTD cohort are consistent with the overall treatment effect6

Overall, in SERAPHIN, OPSUMIT® (macitentan) reduced the risk of disease progression by 45% vs placebo (HR 0.55; 97.5% CI, 0.39-0.76; P<0.0001).6

In the SERAPHIN trial, 31% of the overall patient population had PAH-CTD.6

The information below represents an exploratory subgroup analysis. Results should be interpreted with caution.

Subgroup analysis of the primary endpoint in the SERAPHIN study6

The reduction in risk of disease progression and PAH-related hospitalization in patients with PAH-CTD was consistent with that in the overall study population6,7

Reduction in the risk of PAH-related hospitalization: Results from the PAH-CTD cohort are consistent with the overall treatment effect7

Overall, in SERAPHIN, OPSUMIT reduced the risk of PAH-related death or hospitalization by 50% vs placebo (HR 0.50; 97.5% CI, 0.34-0.75; P<0.0001).6

The information below represents an exploratory analysis and does not appear in the OPSUMIT full Prescribing Information. Results should be interpreted with caution.

Subgroup analysis of a key secondary endpoint in SERAPHIN—time to death due to PAH or hospitalization for PAH7

COLLAPSE –

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

BOXED WARNING: EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY

  • Do not administer OPSUMIT to a pregnant female because it may cause fetal harm.
  • Females of reproductive potential: Exclude pregnancy before the start of treatment, monthly during treatment, and 1 month after stopping treatment. Prevent pregnancy during treatment and for one month after stopping treatment by using acceptable methods of contraception.
  • For all female patients, OPSUMIT is available only through a restricted program called the OPSUMIT Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS).

INDICATION

OPSUMIT is an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, WHO Group I) to reduce the risks of disease progression and hospitalization for PAH.

Effectiveness was established in a long-term study in PAH patients with predominantly WHO Functional Class II-III symptoms treated for an average of 2 years. Patients had idiopathic and heritable PAH (57%), PAH caused by connective tissue disorders (31%), and PAH caused by congenital heart disease with repaired shunts (8%).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Pregnancy: OPSUMIT may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. OPSUMIT is contraindicated in females who are pregnant. If OPSUMIT is used during pregnancy, advise the patient of the potential risk to a fetus.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Embryo-fetal Toxicity and OPSUMIT REMS Program

Due to the risk of embryo-fetal toxicity, OPSUMIT is available for females only through a restricted program called the OPSUMIT REMS Program. For females of reproductive potential, exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of therapy, ensure use of acceptable contraceptive methods, and obtain monthly pregnancy tests.

Notable requirements of the OPSUMIT REMS Program include:

  • Prescribers must be certified with the program by enrolling and completing training.
  • All females, regardless of reproductive potential, must enroll in the OPSUMIT REMS Program prior to initiating OPSUMIT. Male patients are not enrolled in the REMS.
  • Females of reproductive potential must comply with the pregnancy testing and contraception requirements.
  • Pharmacies must be certified with the program and must only dispense to patients who are authorized to receive OPSUMIT.

Hepatotoxicity

  • ERAs have caused elevations of aminotransferases, hepatotoxicity, and liver failure. The incidence of elevated aminotransferases in the SERAPHIN study >3 x ULN was 3.4% for OPSUMIT vs 4.5% for placebo, and >8 x ULN was 2.1% vs 0.4%, respectively. Discontinuations for hepatic adverse events were 3.3% for OPSUMIT vs 1.6% for placebo.
  • Obtain liver enzyme tests prior to initiation of OPSUMIT and repeat during treatment as clinically indicated.
  • Advise patients to report symptoms suggesting hepatic injury (nausea, vomiting, right upper quadrant pain, fatigue, anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, fever, or itching).
  • If clinically relevant aminotransferase elevations occur, or if elevations are accompanied by an increase in bilirubin >2 x ULN, or by clinical symptoms of hepatotoxicity, discontinue OPSUMIT. Consider re-initiation of OPSUMIT when hepatic enzyme levels normalize in patients who have not experienced clinical symptoms of hepatotoxicity.

Fluid Retention

  • Peripheral edema and fluid retention are known consequences of PAH and ERAs. In the pivotal PAH study SERAPHIN, edema was reported in 21.9% of the OPSUMIT group vs 20.5% for placebo.
  • Patients with underlying left ventricular dysfunction may be at particular risk for developing significant fluid retention after initiation of ERA treatment. In a small study of pulmonary hypertension due to left ventricular dysfunction, more patients in the OPSUMIT group developed significant fluid retention and had more hospitalizations due to worsening heart failure compared to placebo. Postmarketing cases of edema and fluid retention occurring within weeks of starting OPSUMIT, some requiring intervention with a diuretic or hospitalization for decompensated heart failure, have been reported.
  • Monitor for signs of fluid retention after OPSUMIT initiation. If clinically significant fluid retention develops, evaluate the patient to determine the cause and the possible need to discontinue OPSUMIT.

Hemoglobin Decrease

  • Decreases in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit have occurred following administration of other ERAs and in clinical studies with OPSUMIT. These decreases occurred early and stabilized thereafter.
  • In the SERAPHIN study, OPSUMIT caused a mean decrease in hemoglobin (from baseline to 18 months) of about 1.0 g/dL vs no change in the placebo group. A decrease in hemoglobin to below 10.0 g/dL was reported in 8.7% of the OPSUMIT group vs 3.4% for placebo. Decreases in hemoglobin seldom require transfusion.
  • Initiation of OPSUMIT is not recommended in patients with severe anemia. Measure hemoglobin prior to initiation of treatment and repeat during treatment as clinically indicated.

Pulmonary Edema with Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease (PVOD)

Should signs of pulmonary edema occur, consider the possibility of associated PVOD. If confirmed, discontinue OPSUMIT.

Decreased Sperm Counts

OPSUMIT, like other ERAs, may have an adverse effect on spermatogenesis. Counsel men about potential effects on fertility.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Most common adverse reactions (more frequent than placebo by ≥3%) were anemia (13% vs 3%), nasopharyngitis/pharyngitis (20% vs 13%), bronchitis (12% vs 6%), headache (14% vs 9%), influenza (6% vs 2%), and urinary tract infection (9% vs 6%).

DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Strong inducers of CYP3A4 such as rifampin significantly reduce macitentan exposure. Concomitant use of OPSUMIT with strong CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided.
  • Strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 like ketoconazole approximately double macitentan exposure. Many HIV drugs like ritonavir are strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Avoid concomitant use of OPSUMIT with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use other PAH treatment options when strong CYP3A4 inhibitors are needed as part of HIV treatment.

INDICATION

OPSUMIT is an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, WHO Group I) to reduce the risks of disease progression and hospitalization for PAH.

Effectiveness was established in a long-term study in PAH patients with predominantly WHO Functional Class II-III symptoms treated for an average of 2 years. Patients had idiopathic and heritable PAH (57%), PAH caused by connective tissue disorders (31%), and PAH caused by congenital heart disease with repaired shunts (8%).

View full Prescribing Information for OPSUMIT® (macitentan), including BOXED WARNING.

*“Other” etiology consists of heritable PAH, PAH related to drugs and toxins, or PAH-HIV.

CI=confidence interval; HR=hazard ratio; PAH=pulmonary arterial hypertension; PAH-HIV=PAH associated with human immunodeficiency virus; SERAPHIN=Study with an Endothelin Receptor Antagonist in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension to Improve CliNical Outcome.
References: 1. Chung L, Liu J, Parsons L, et al. Characterization of connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension from REVEAL: identifying systemic sclerosis as a unique phenotype. Chest. 2010;138:1383-1394. 2. Khanna D, Gladue H, Channick R, et al. Recommendations for screening and detection of connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:3194-3201. 3. Galiè N, Humbert M, Vachiery J-L, et al. 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Respir J. 2015;46(4):903-975. 4. Benza RL, Miller DP, Barst RJ, Badesch DB, Frost AE, McGoon MD. An evaluation of long-term survival from time of diagnosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension from the REVEAL Registry. Chest. 2012;142:448-456. 5. Simonneau G, Gatzoulis MA, Adatia I, et al. Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(25 suppl):D34-D41. 6. OPSUMIT [prescribing information]. South San Francisco, CA: Actelion Pharmaceuticals US, Inc. 7. Data on file. Actelion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Data as of April 2020.

EXPAND +

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

BOXED WARNING: EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY

  • Do not administer OPSUMIT to a pregnant female because it may cause fetal harm.
  • Females of reproductive potential: Exclude pregnancy before the start of treatment, monthly during treatment, and 1 month after stopping treatment. Prevent pregnancy during treatment and for one month after stopping treatment by using acceptable methods of contraception.
  • For all female patients, OPSUMIT is available only through a restricted program called the OPSUMIT Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS).

INDICATION

OPSUMIT is an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, WHO Group I) to reduce the risks of disease progression and hospitalization for PAH.

Effectiveness was established in a long-term study in PAH patients with predominantly WHO Functional Class II-III symptoms treated for an average of 2 years. Patients had idiopathic and heritable PAH (57%), PAH caused by connective tissue disorders (31%), and PAH caused by congenital heart disease with repaired shunts (8%).